From: The Road to Excellence
The University of Connecticut School of Pharmacy 1925-2000
Edited by Karl A. Neiforth, Ph.D.
The leadership during the second phase of the School’s 50-year history was shared by two administrators. Harold G. Hewitt was selected by President Albert N. Jorgensen to fill the office of Dean upon the resignation of Henry S. Johnson. The Hewitt era began July 1, 1947 and was completed on December 31, 1969. Dean Hewitt was formerly Professor of Chemistry at the University of Buffalo. His successor was Arthur E. Schwarting, Professor of Pharmacognosy and a member of the faculty of the School since 1949, who began his term as dean on January 1, 1970.
This chapter will review the major developments of building construction, faculty growth, curriculum changes and development, continuing education programs, graduate education development (see also the separate chapter on the subject), alumni relations and student activities under these administrators through the period 1947-1975, inclusive.
The third dean of the School, Harold G. Hewitt, gave attention to the major problems facing the School at the time of his appointment. He sought an increase in faculty size and a broadening of the expertise of the faculty. The development of a graduate program, the relocation of the School, and the construction of a new classroom and laboratory facility were major objectives in the early years of his administration. The matter of curriculum development was a perennial issue during his tenure and the inauguration of the mandated five-year baccalaureate program occurred at the middle of his term.
The fourth dean of the School, Arthur E. Schwarting, gave major attention to other programs. Considerable attention was directed to professional curriculum reorganization and revision, including the incorporation of appropriate pre-clinical educational experiences and providing the opportunity to acquire clinical skills in the undergraduate program. Faculty growth with a co-objective of developing a strong and nationally reorganized research program, including planning of a major program in toxicology were principal goals. Also, the development of stronger alumni relations was given prime attention. Facility change and improvement, both for the clinically oriented undergraduate curriculum, and also for the purpose of developing a stronger research program was a fourth principal objective of his administration.
The Pharmacy Buildings
The relocation of the School and the attending problems, particularly the matter of obtaining the resources for this development, were given top priority by Dean Hewitt in the 1947-49 period. Approval of the long-standing request to move the School to a new facility on the main campus at Storrs was made in late 1947. This decision followed many conferences and meetings with University administrators, with the faculty of the School and with the leaders of the profession in the state. The decision to move was not particularly popular with both the faculty and by those members of the student body who would be translocated. Practitioners and even some alumni reacted to the site change with a variety of negative opinions. Thus, the new dean took on a demanding assignment to promote a venture that did not have general endorsement. His activities in this regard reached out to legislators and politicians as well as to practitioners, and to the students and the faculty. He stressed a number of advantages of the proposed change. He reasoned that the advantages of campus life, socially and intellectually, were values both faculty and students could realize. The potential for intellectual growth for the students through course selection in the arts, humanities, social sciences and the sciences were portrayed while the present and future faculty members would gain from association and interaction with experts and specialists in other departments and schools. In spite of his efforts, many faculty viewed the move with the same concerns expressed some thirty years later when translocation of the Storrs based facility to the University Health Center in Farmington was considered.
The expansion of resources for education and for extracurricular activities for both groups was clearly depicted in his arguments and presentations. Moreover, Dean Hewitt was strong in his view that a quality graduate program could develop only in the multidisciplinary environment of a university.
In April 1949, a bill for a new building for the School of Pharmacy on the Storrs campus was drafted. The Education Committee of the State Legislature approved the bill carrying a recommended appropriation of $750,000 and the bill was referred to the Appropriations Committee. This committee gave its approval but at a figure of $600,000. The bill, however, became a controversial issue in the legislature and the appropriation was further reduced to the level of $480,000. Near the end of the session the bill appeared to be “lost,” for reasons that were never revealed, but through the efforts of an influential pharmacist, the bill was “found” on the last day and was passed. This appropriation, however, like many others was “frozen” until June 1950 because of the Korean War.
Bids were obtained during the summer of 1950 and the lowest bid was $170,000 in excess of the appropriation. Thus a wing of the proposed U-shaped building was eliminated from the plans and a new bid was awarded in October 1950. Construction began early in 1951. Occupancy of the third floor occurred in January 1952 and the remainder of the building was occupied during the fall semester in that year. Funds were sought from the Legislature in 1951 to finance the construction of the east wing which was not financed by the original appropriation. The appropriation of $350,000 was made and the addition was completed and occupied during the 1953-54 academic year.
The transition from the New Haven facility to the campus facility was not without numerous problems. The freshman class entering in the fall of 1950 reported to the campus while the other three classes remained in New Haven. In the fall of 1951, the faculty and the two remaining classes at the New Haven facility reported to the Storrs campus.
World War II barracks buildings, which had been transplanted to the campus after the war, were utilized for offices and some laboratories–including laboratory space for a small graduate student group. An adjoining temporary classroom/office building (Rostov Building) provided classroom space. One laboratory offering was conducted in a College of Agriculture building.
More than ninety tons of equipment, laboratory and office furniture, supplies and the library volumes and furniture were moved during the summer of 1951. Some laboratory benches were moved and installed in the barracks buildings. Storage of much of the material was in an ROTC building (shed) but these items were later moved to a third barracks building. Access to some of the equipment became necessary when the planned 1951-52 occupancy of the new building was delayed one year.
The buildings at 150 York Street were rented to the State Welfare Department at $9,000/year until they were sold for $70,000 in 1958. The rental income, and the income from the property sale, was used for equipment purchases for both undergraduate and graduate programs.
An application to the National Institutes of Health for a grant of $150,000 for a building addition for a Pharmacy Research Institute was made in 1957. An award from this agency was contingent upon a matching sum from state funds. The state appropriation was made and construction began in December 1958, and was completed in April 1960. A further addition to this research building was initiated in 1963 and occupancy of this facility was in 1966. This $400,000 addition, too, was with monies from the NIH ($169,650) and from state appropriated funds ($230,350).
These buildings in 1975 provided office space for twenty-five full-time faculty members, seating for 275 students in three classrooms, three conference rooms for seminars and small group instruction and five laboratories for undergraduate instruction.
In addition, specialized facilities for graduate student and faculty research in Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy and in Pharmacology and Toxicology occupied 18,210 sq. ft. of laboratory space in the buildings. The concept of a Research Institute was never realized. Although Dean Hewitt’s plan to appoint a Director was pursued on several occasions, a precise plan for the operation and function of the Institute was never prepared.
In the early 1970′s a series of program changes initiated by Dean Schwarting gave cause for modification and modernization of some parts of all of the buildings and led to a series of renovations. These were supported financially by a Health Professions Education Improvement Program Grant award made in 1972, by a series of annual awards from the National Library Resources Improvement Fund, beginning in 1969, and by the annual Health Science Capitation awards beginning in 1972.
The library stack area was taken out of the reading room area and moved into an adjoining room formerly used as a classroom. New reading room furniture and carpeting were added. In addition, a separate “center” for self-instructional learning was established in a former classroom in 1972-73. This facility, while designed and equipped for undergraduate instruction, also was designed to serve a teaching and learning role in graduate education and was planned ultimately to serve a role in practitioner education. The “Center” was linked to two classrooms and one laboratory for color TV transmission. Programs could be presented either “live” or taped. An adjoining media preparation room was equipped for the production of specialized teaching materials.
An undergraduate laboratory originally for “physical pharmacy” was transformed into a research facility to accommodate a drug stability study in 1965 and then into an instrument laboratory in 1972. The last renovation was made to accommodate a number of costly research instruments that were used by faculty and both graduate and undergraduate students.
Another major change involved the elimination of facilities and equipment used in teaching “Manufacturing Pharmacy.” The areas once used for product development and manufacturing were converted to research facilities in Pharmaceutics, and much of the equipment was sold or given to other departments.
The Drug Information Center was established in 1972 at the Health Center. The support for this service program and the related instructional activity was a joint venture by the School and the Department of Pharmacy at the John Dempsey Hospital. The staff held dual appointments on the Clinical Faculty at the School and the Pharmacy Department staff.
In 1974, Dr. Eugene S. Stratford contacted Medicinal Chemists in the four New England colleges of Pharmacy to solicit interest in a regional Medicinal Chemistry meeting. Although enthusiasm was expressed, a meeting failed to materialize. The following year, with the assistance of Drs. Gilbert J. Hite and Karl A. Nieforth, a meeting of the New England Regional Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy group (NERMCAP) was hosted in Storrs. The purpose of this organization was to provide graduate students with a forum, more formal than a college seminar and less threatening than a national meeting, to discuss their scholarly efforts with their peers. In 2000, the University of Connecticut was honored to host the Silver Anniversary meeting of the organization which is now the North Eastern Regional Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy group reflecting the expanded sphere of influence.
In 1947, the full-time faculty numbered seven, including Dean Hewitt. They were the retired Dean and Professor of Chemistry, Henry S. Johnson; Leslie B. Barrett, Professor of Pharmacognosy; Nicholas W. Fenney, Professor of Pharmacy; Augustus A. Maier, Professor of Chemistry; Horace J. Fuller, Assistant Professor of Pharmacy Accounting; Wallace F. White, Associate Professor of Pharmacology; and Walter R. Williams, Assistant Professor of Chemistry.
Dean Hewitt began to develop a balance in the staff through additions, which assured a quality undergraduate program and also a nucleus for a strong graduate education and research program. Thus additions were made to strengthen the faculties in each of the subject areas of the undergraduate curriculum and of the research areas, which were approved for the offering of the Ph.D. degree by the University Graduate Council in 1952.
During the tenure of Dean Schwarting, there were major changes in faculty members and in appointments in new specialty areas. Programs in toxicology and biopharmaceutics were developed with a research component of the latter program being moved to the Health Center site in Farmington. Also, the clinical education program was conceived and developed in the early 70′s and both full-time and part-time appointments were first made in 1971.
See the listing of full-time faculty in the Appendix , 1925-2000.
Student Activities and Organizations
Students of the Connecticut College of Pharmacy were largely Connecticut residents and most of them commuted daily from their homes. In contrast, Pharmacy students at the University of Connecticut at Storrs were largely housed in living units on the campus and were drawn to the program from many states. In 1975, two hundred sixteen of the six hundred twenty-five students in the five class years were out-of-state students.
In 1948, the University Trustees together with the governing bodies of the other five Land Grant Colleges and Universities of the New England region adopted a resolution which granted a priority for admission to students for programs of education not available in their own states; the out-of-state fees were waived for entering students in these programs. Although subsequently a regional fee was established, the Pharmacy program at the University of Connecticut became more readily available to these regional students from Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire and Vermont. The program was inaugurated at the beginning of the 1954-55 academic year and continued through the anniversary year. With minor fluctuations for the next forty years up to AY 1994-95, the last year that students were admitted directly into the Pharmacy program as Freshmen, Pharmacy classes were made up of 70% Connecticut residents, 20% regional registrants and 10% out-of-state students. That situation changed dramatically in Fall 1997 when the first Pharm. D. class enrolled. The Class of 2001 contains 81% resident, 11% regional and 8% out-of-state students.
Extracurricular activities were largely Pharmacy oriented at New Haven; professional fraternity and sorority activities were dominant. The chapter of Rho Pi Phi was established in 1926. Chi Alpha Phi, founded in 1928 as a local fraternity, became a chapter of Kappa Psi in the same year. The chapter of Alpha Zeta Omega was organized in 1929. Lambda Kappa Sigma was established in 1949 and the chapter of Phi Delta Chi was chartered in 1949. The Student Council originated in 1926 and the Student Branch of the American Pharmaceutical Association originated in 1939. A photography club, a glee club and an athletic association were the major nonprofessional activities in these early years.
A publication “The Distillate” originated in 1927 and was succeeded in 1934 by “The Pharm-Conn.” These publications served as a means of reporting student activities and achievements and served as a yearbook for the graduation class each year until the translocation of the Pharmacy program to Storrs in 1949. When the School moved to Storrs in 1950, there did not seem to be a need to continue individual Pharmacy School yearbooks because all University graduates were included in the “Nutmeg,” the University yearbook. Members of the Pharmacy Class of 1973 decided that Pharmacy deserved a yearbook of its own and produced a quality publication named “The Capsule.” Each class since then with the exception of the Class of 1977 has published an edition of “The Capsule.”
In 1929, the students who were of honors rank, met and established an honor society. Eight members of the Class of 1930 became charter members of the Curtis P. Gladding Honor Society, a name which recognized the President of the Board of Trustees of the College. The members drafted a constitution, officers were elected, and five new members of the Class of 1931 were inducted into the Society. During the period 1930-41, sixty-seven students, four faculty members, and Mr. Gladding became members of the Society.
In 1941, members of this society petitioned for affiliation with the Rho Chi Society, a national honor society for Pharmacy. The petition was approved and the Alpha Gamma Chapter was established in 1942. The members included the student members of the Class of 1941, who were originally elected to the Gladding Society, qualified members of the Class of 1942 and several faculty members. In the fall of 1950, immediately after the Pharmacy program was completely moved to Storrs, the Rho Chi Society inducted thirty members of the Curtis P. Gladding Honor Society who had graduated prior to 1941 and who accepted the invitation to join the national organization. The membership of these two societies is listed at the end of this chapter.
The Mortar and Pestle Society was founded in 1948 in New Haven and continued to elect members annually until 1973. This organization was established to recognize students who had demonstrated exceptional qualities of leadership. Mortar and Pestle Society scheduled an annual window display contest for all student organizations. This group was replaced by Pharmacy’s National Leadership Society, Phi Lambda Sigma, when the Alpha Gamma Chapter was instituted in 1991. The membership rosters of both organizations appear in the appendices.
A number of entering students in the Pharmacy program at Storrs were drawn to the University because of the opportunity to participate in a wide variety of activities in athletics, politics and governance and also the myriad of scientific, social, fraternal, honors and cultural programs and organizations that were available to them. While interest was sustained in professional activities, the professional fraternities and the sororities were weakened in the 1970′s by University decisions to eliminate all fraternity and sorority houses. For several years prior to that time, fraternities and sororities had been privileged to associate their names with University dormitories as long as the organization was able to sustain a resident membership in excess of 60. The decision to rescind this privilege was based on the inappropriateness of students determining which student would live in University dormitories. Their failure was coincident with the demise of a number of student organizations in nearly all areas of University student activity during the turbulent times of the late 1960′s and early 1970′s. Fraternities and sororities and other University-approved organizations were considered to be anachronistic by student leaders of the time.
There were skilled and distinguished athletes in the varsity sports programs. Pharmacy students were elected University class officers and served as editors of the Daily Campus and of the Nutmeg. Student leaders and scholars were recognized by Mortar Board, a senior women’s national honorary society and by Archon, a local men’s honorary society recognizing leadership.
A list of all participants is difficult to obtain, but this partial list offers some insight into the participation by Pharmacy students.
• Elliot Bohrer ’57, Senior Class President
• Robert Cieszynski ’58, Junior Class President
• Joseph Fallon ’58, Sophomore Class President
• Eric Besighne ’58, Daily Campus Editor
• Robert Steeves ’59, Daily Campus Editor
• John Hudock ’59, Daily Campus Managing Editor
• Edward Rogers ’59, Nutmeg, Executive Editor
• Fenna Lee Fisher ’56, Mortar Board Society
• Doris Brown ’58, Mortar Board Society
• George Zondiras ’54, Archon Society
• John Hudock ’59, Archon Society
• Robert Steeves ’59, Archon Society
• Edric Bates ’60, Archon Society
• John Howland ’65, Archon Society
• William Hait ’65, Archon Society
• David Page ’67, Archon Society
• Larry Traster ’75, Varsity Basketball
• Catherin Bochain ’85, Varsity Basketball
• Raymond Luciani ’54, Varsity Football
• Joseph DeLucia ’65, Varsity Football
• Lawrence Day ’71, Varsity Football
• John Rosazza ’62, Varsity Swimming
• Karla J. Nieforth ’90, Varsity Swimming
• Gerald Schwarting ’69, Varsity Soccer
• John Dello Stritto ’64, Varsity Hockey
• Richard Dyroff ’76, Varsity Hockey
• Thomas Dyroff ’78, Varsity Hockey
• Mark Brackett ’78, Varsity Hockey
• Linda H. Ainsworth ’76, Varsity Field Hockey
• Joseph Clement ’61, Varsity Baseball
• Vincent Bernardi ’63, Varsity Baseball
• Steven Erwin ’69, Varsity Baseball
• David Gardner ’60, Varsity Track
In 1951, the University began an Honors Program recognizing students who had demonstrated high scholarship. The two to four-year program according to the University catalog “enriches the academic program of students in all majors by offering the challenges of more-in-depth study and considerable opportunity for independent projects or research.” The Honors Scholars designation ranks higher than the Distinction designation and is more flexible, particularly in the upper division. The Degree with Distinction is offered at the discretion of Departments wishing to recognize exceptional mastery of a discipline. While the award does not demand the degree of rigor and amount of commitment that are required of University Scholars and Honors Scholars, it does require scholarly work significantly beyond the normal requirements for graduation. Each year, the University’s Honors Programs selects up to thirty juniors for admission into the University Scholars program. This prestigious program is for motivated students who wish to pursue nontraditional programs of study of their own creation. The Program permitted students so identified unrestricted access to any course that appealed to their intellect. In addition, students admitted to this group from among the top 1% of the student body were permitted certain freedoms from required courses within their major. While students in the School of Pharmacy were limited in elective credits in their final year and were required to complete certain courses, several Pharmacy students have been accorded this honor since 1951.
Professional visitations to various Pharmaceutical industry facilities have been part of the academic program for more than fifty years. Traditionally the Senior Class visitations were mandatory and were usually scheduled during Spring Vacation. Students would travel by train to Midwestern companies such as Abbott, Eli Lilly, Parke Davis and Upjohn spending about five days on the educational excursion. In 1968, the travel mode changed from rail to air and the questions about University liability were raised particularly since the visitations were described as a mandatory part of the curriculum. Students considered the visitations to be a financial hardship since they were unable to work during the vacation week and airline tickets were considerably more expensive at the time than rail. Chartered flights would have been more economical but the liability was unsettling. Such trips were thus defined as optional and eventually evolved into one-day experiences for first or second professional year students at local companies such as Miles, Schein, Pfizer, Boehringer Ingelheim and Bristol Myers.
In the summer of 1957, letters were sent by the Dean to all male students advising them of dress regulations voted by the faculty of the School. Men were required to wear a suit coat or jacket, or a “professional” jacket and a shirt and tie were also to be worn to all Pharmacy classes and in the laboratories. Furthermore, these students were to be “clean-shaven” and otherwise “well-groomed.”
These regulations were accepted by the students; the ruling was really a reemphasis of a longstanding tradition that was being violated by a few students. The reaction by other students in the University was not complimentary and the publicity generated in the newspapers within the state and region and in other parts of the country gave conflicting opinion on the matter. In 1967, ten years after the order went into effect, the issue was challenged by a student who threatened legal action against the Dean of the School, and a member of the University administration. The University administrator gave the student the right to dress as he wished and the majority of other Pharmacy students soon followed the new directive.
In order to ensure smooth communications between faculty and students, the Student-Faculty Relations Committee (SFRC) was formed in 1969. SFRC included at least two members of each professional class and a faculty advisor. The Committee was not intended to replace direct student and faculty interaction but rather presented a forum where sensitive issues could be discussed and appropriate responses framed. It was also a means to give students the opportunity to have an active role in curriculum design and implementation. At the end of each academic year SFRC sponsored a reception for faculty and students.
Throughout its existence as a private school, the Connecticut College of Pharmacy focused attention on undergraduate instruction in pharmacy. It is understandable why the College, regularly faced with financial problems, should not have given consideration to offering advanced studies and graduate degrees. However it should be acknowledged that Walter R. Williams, Ph. G., a member of the Class of 1928 continued his studies at the College and in 1932 received the degree of Pharmaceutical Chemist. Graduate course offerings and research endeavors are expensive undertakings. In fact, even after its financial problems were resolved by affiliation with the University of Connecticut, the College continued to function for eight years as an undergraduate school.
It is appropriate to note at this point the recollections of Dr. Paul J. Jannke. “In 1936, Albert Nels Jorgensen, who was Dean of the School of Education at the University of Buffalo was selected by the State of Connecticut to serve as President of its growing University in Storrs. Also at Buffalo at that time was an organic chemistry professor who was a close family friend of Dr. Jorgensen, and, it so happened was a Pharmacy graduate of the University of Wisconsin. Dr. Jorgensen originally came from a small town in Iowa and so he was familiar with Wisconsin. It also can be disclosed that Dr. Harold Hewitt was the Godfather for Albie Jorgensen, Jr. Another interesting fact is that Harriet Jorgensen and Martha Hewitt were playmates when they were children in West Branch, Iowa.
Enter Paul Jannke (blushing)
I was acquainted with the Hewitt family when I grew up in Milwaukee. Dr. Hewitt was our family dentist. Hal was older by about ten years than I so I had no more than met him then. When I went to the University of Wisconsin, Hal had already completed his Ph.D. program and moved to Buffalo, N.Y. where he became a professor of organic chemistry in the Pharmacy School. He did leave some things behind in Madison for me to share. For example, I worked in the same lab and used the same desk in the office where he did. But there was no ghost of him except for an excellent reputation as a scholar and gentleman.
Both Hal and I attended annual conventions of the APhA, had lunch together, etc. He was interested in what I was doing at the University of Nebraska and when I described the graduate program, which I initiated for Pharmacy students. He became increasingly more interested in the early to mid 1940′s and it is possible that he was a strong factor in persuading President Jorgensen to inspire the State Legislature to adopt the then expiring Pharmacy College and become a real University.
One way or another, the deal was done and the entire staff, both business and academic and all of the equipment owned by the original College was moved to temporary quarters in Storrs and the educational process continued without operation while the new Pharmacy Building was being constructed. One faculty member, Wallace White accepted a position at the University of Minnesota rather than move to Storrs.
The Graduate School is the only agency of the University which is authorized by the Trustees to award graduate degrees whether they are “honorary” or “earned” degrees. The latter are granted to qualified candidates who have successfully completed all of the academic requirements, which were identified in the candidate’s program. The various Schools and Departments of the University do not automatically become eligible for membership in the Graduate School. Nor do faculty members of the various Schools/Colleges automatically become members of the Graduate School faculty. Each candidate must file a detailed resume of his/her training and qualifications for offering graduate course work and directing research in his/her field of specialization. Indeed, both the Dean of the Graduate School and the President of the University must certify to the Board of Trustees that candidates recommended for admission to the Graduate Faculty are indeed qualified and responsible people.
When I first called at the Graduate School to submit credentials for the proposed program for the School of Pharmacy, I was formally introduced to Dean Nathan Whetten. Academically, he was a Harvard graduate and his field of specialization was rural economics. As the conversation continued, I noted that Dean Whetten was somewhat amused that research was the backbone of Pharmaceutical education and industry. I was invited to attend the next meeting of the Executive Committee a few days thereafter. At the second meeting of the Committee a month later, I was elected Secretary of the Executive Committee of the Graduate School, an office I filled for fourteen years. We had no problem in getting approval for the Graduate Program of the School of Pharmacy.
University President, Dr. A. N. Jorgensen, sought the development of the School of Pharmacy such that it would rank among the best in the nation. Following the retirement of Dr. Johnson as Dean, the President proceeded to support the hiring of teaching personnel who were charged with the responsibility of developing and conducting graduate degree programs in the pharmaceutical sciences as well as contributing to a strong undergraduate program. Dr. Harold G. Hewitt was engaged as Dean, and Drs. P. J. Jannke, D. M. Skauen and A. E. Schwarting were added to the faculty, all within a matter of two years.
In 1948, the buildings at York Street, in New Haven, were completely utilized by the undergraduate program. They afforded no facilities whatsoever for graduate studies, but it was understood that in the near future the College would be moving into new facilities for both undergraduate and graduate degree programs on the Storrs campus. Consequently, it was entirely in order that at least the planning of a graduate program should be initiated. It was necessary to first obtain permission from the Graduate School and the Board of Trustees of the University to offer graduate course work and research programs leading to advanced degrees.
Therefore, lengthy and detailed statements of information describing the nature of graduate studies within the overall concept of the pharmaceutical sciences were drafted. The aims and goals of such programs and the need for them were emphasized. After receiving encouragement in the form of tentative approval, it became necessary to submit a syllabus for each course to be offered and to identify the qualifications of the respective instructors. In 1950 a formal petition was presented to the Graduate School, asking that the School of Pharmacy be empowered to offer graduate course work and research leading to the master’s and doctorate degrees. The program was approved. In 1949, under the conditions of the tentative approval given by the Graduate School, three well-qualified students were selected. The Graduate School permitted one of the students to take advanced course work in botany and chemistry at Yale University and allowed such earned credit to be counted toward a master’s degree to be awarded by the University of Connecticut. Half of the lunch-recreation room at the York Street facility was converted into a laboratory, a modest supply of research equipment was purchased and the graduate program was launched. The first students to enroll were Margaret L. Adams and Albert M. White, both of whom were graduates of the University of Connecticut, and Varro E. Tyler, who had earned his degree at the University of Nebraska.
At best, physical limitations at the York Street building were severe. Although the new pharmacy building in Storrs was not to be ready for occupancy until 1952, the School moved to the campus during the summer of 1951, where it occupied several temporary buildings, one of which was equipped for graduate offerings and for laboratory research. Even here, space limitations controlled the number of graduate students who could be admitted to the program. Nevertheless, there were viable programs in the areas of pharmacy, pharmacognosy and pharmaceutical chemistry.
When the College moved into the newly constructed pharmacy building in 1952, there still was a shortage of graduate laboratory space. Due to an increase in the cost of construction, one wing of the proposed building housing three large and numerous small laboratories had to be deleted. All of the graduate students, therefore, shared one large research laboratory. When the additional wing was constructed in 1953, it provided separate research laboratories for pharmacy, pharmaceutical chemistry and pharmacology, each on a separate floor; the pharmacognosy program then took over the entire original laboratory.
As the research progressed, theses were written, degrees were awarded and an active program of publication in scientific journals ensued. The first advanced degree awarded to a student in the graduate program was the M.S. degree granted Varro E. Tyler in 1951. He was also the first to earn the Ph.D. degree, which was awarded to him in 1953. (A tabulation of recipients of Master of Science and Doctor of Philosophy degrees during the period 1951-2000 is in the appendices.)
In fewer than ten years from the time when the graduate program began, the programs of the School were recognized to be among the best in the country. There was a young and energetic staff with a very good group of graduate students, all of whom were housed in the modern laboratories and were amply supplied with equipment. Early research projects were concerned with the growth and metabolism of ergot in submerged culture, the use of ursolic acid as an emulsifying agent and a study of the dehydration products of o-thymotic acid. The first research grant and fellowship was an award of $1,800 from Eli Lilly & Co., supporting the submerged ergot culture studies in 1950. As the breadth of interest developed in several areas, so did the need for additional financial support. At that time, the University itself had very limited funds for this purpose, and consequently staff members engaged in research had to direct inquiries to the various agencies of the federal government into whose areas of interest the respective research programs might come.
The graduate faculty were extremely successful in securing large and numerous research grants from several of these agencies, including the National Institutes of Health, the National Science Foundation, the U.S. Army Surgeon General’s Office and the U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command. Fellowships were also awarded by the American Foundation for Pharmaceutical Education. The University of Connecticut Research Foundation, beginning in the mid-1960′s, supported numerous preliminary studies, particularly among new faculty members to initiate research programs.
With supporting funds from the National Institutes of Health, a new building was constructed in 1958 to house a proposed Pharmacy Research Institute. Located adjacent to and connected with the existing pharmacy building, this three-story building was to be devoted exclusively to graduate research in pharmacy, pharmacognosy and pharmacology. The institute concept was planned for several reasons, but largely to attract funds from the pharmaceutical industry to support research. While this goal was not initially realized, some support was obtained from pharmaceutical firms, primarily in the form of equipment.
When the graduate program began in 1949, the organization of the programs conformed more or less with the national pattern, in which four areas of specialization were recognized. They were: pharmacy (pharmaceutics), pharmaceutical chemistry (medicinal chemistry), pharmacognosy and pharmacology. During the ensuing twenty-five years, drastic changes have come upon the profession, not only in its practice, but also in its academic training. The changes, which transpired at the graduate level are no more or less dramatic than those which came about in the undergraduate curriculum. Whereas there were four areas of specialization formerly, in the interim there have been additional programs in pharmacy administration, hospital pharmacy, pharmacoeconomics, immunology, toxicology, pharmacokinetics and biopharmaceutics and the nature of the original specialty areas was much changed.
Upon departmentalization of the faculty in 1994, six areas of concentration were recognized under the Pharmaceutical Science banner, Pharmacy Administration (M. S. only), Managed Care Pharmacy (M. S. only), Medicinal and Natural Products Chemistry, Neurosciences (Interdisciplinary), Pharmaceutics and Pharmacology and Toxicology. Although Pharmacy Administration faculty serve in the Department of Pharmacy Practice, that Department does not have a recognized graduate program and those faculty wishing to become involved with graduate education do so under the auspices of Pharmaceutical Science.
The graduate program and staff expanded at a rapid rate during the second decade of the program’s existence. Responsibilities for the program proliferated to such an extent that there was a need for a separate administrator, namely an Assistant Dean for Graduate Studies and Research. In 1974, some twenty-five years after the graduate program’s inception, graduate students at the School numbered 42 and there were five postdoctoral students. Eleven full-time, one research professor and one research Associate faculty members were authorized by the Graduate School to serve as major advisors for graduate students. In the interval, 1951 to 1974, inclusive, the M.S. degree was awarded to 70 students and the Ph.D. degree was awarded to 95 students in the pharmaceutical sciences.
During the next twenty-five years, graduate faculty in the School more than doubled and the 1999 Graduate School catalog listed 26 faculty members authorized to mentor graduate students including 24 full-time faculty, one research assistant professor and one research professor. By 1999, the fiftieth anniversary of the first admissions into Pharmaceutical Sciences, 240 Ph.D.’s and 148 M. S.’s had been awarded. Faculty had also directed the completion of three M.B.A. degrees through their joint appointments in the School of Business Administration.
Alumni and Alumni Relations
The first graduates of the Connecticut College of Pharmacy formed an Alumni Association in 1928, and while the educational program continued in New Haven, alumni activities were an integral part of the programs of the College. However, in 1942, when the educational programs became affiliated with the University of Connecticut, this Alumni Association was discontinued in deference to the University’s Alumni Association and not until 1970, was the Pharmacy Association reactivated. The new Alumni Association included all graduates of the School since 1927.
There were a number of factors that contributed to the vigor and the objectives of these organizations. A major factor was the changing institutional alliance – first with the Connecticut Pharmaceutical Association the College’s founding organization and then with the University of Connecticut. The changes in professional practice and service functions were other factors as was the changing nature of the educational programs and the origin and composition of the students enrolled in these programs.
The entering class in 1925 numbered 86 and there were four women students in this class. In the fiftieth anniversary year, 1975, there were 161 freshmen students and 71 of these were women. At present, women make up approximately 65% of each class. Until the facilities moved to the University of Connecticut campus at Storrs, the student body was almost exclusively from Connecticut. In 1975, 48 of the 161 freshmen were residents of other states and 21 of the 61 graduates in 1975 were out-of-state residents. For the past several years Connecticut residents represent 70% of each graduating class, New England Regional students, 20% and out-of-state, 10%. Thus, the women graduates and out-of-state graduates increased dramatically until the 1970′s and then remained fairly constant to the present date.
The Ph.G. degree (first a two-year and then a three-year program) was awarded to the first 338 graduates of the College during the first ten years. During this period two of these graduates returned to earn the Ph.C. degree and two others earned this degree as a singular degree. The four-year baccalaureate degree (B.S. in Pharmacy) was awarded to 1055 candidates between 1936 and 1963; 146 of these degrees were granted by the Connecticut College of Pharmacy and the remainder (909) were awarded, after 1942, by the University of Connecticut. The baccalaureate degree was originally a four-year degree but, beginning in 1965, the graduates were required to complete five years of study. An additional 2741 students earned the five-year baccalaureate degree between 1965 and 1999. There were no graduation classes in 1929, 1935, 1964 or in this the year 2000, the School’s seventy-fifth year, as these were the transition years from the two-year to the three-year Ph. G. program, the four year to the five year baccalaureate program and the six year entry level Doctor of Pharmacy. In all, there were 4134 degrees awarded in the first three quarters of the century of the College and the School.
The need for an organization of alumni was recognized early. In October 1928, representatives of the first two classes met and adopted a constitution and elected alumni officers as follows: Sidney Kramer, ’27, President; John Vangor, ’28, Vice -President; Theodore R. Holmes, ’27, secretary; Delphis G. Boucher, ’28, Treasurer; Walter R. Williams, ’28, Executive Committee Chairman. The two classes elected “permanent class secretaries” to serve “until resignation.” These representatives were Carl A. Esposito and John DeNicola for the classes of 1927 and 1928, respectively. Subsequent classes continued the election of a permanent secretary.
Meetings of the Association were held twice each year until 1942. A June meeting was held in connection with the commencement ceremony and in January to conduct the business of the Association. In 1934 and continuing through 1941, an alumni day banquet was held in connection with the commencement program; the graduation class members were guests of the Association. A dinner-dance sponsored by the Association became an annual fall event beginning in 1930. This event served as a fund-raiser for the college for a decade.
The Association published “The Apothescope” (originally “The Pharmascope”) beginning in 1929. This “journal,” which ceased publication in 1937, carried editorials, professional articles, news of the College, and fraternity and alumni activities. A “Pharmaceutical Congress” under Association auspices, was held in 1934 and again in 1935 and 1936 in New Haven. The activities of these events included a program of speeches and exhibits of pharmaceutical products. In 1945, the Association, with the Connecticut Pharmaceutical Association, held a commemorative program recognizing the 20th anniversary of the College. Dr. E. B. Chain, a 1945 Nobel Prize winner spoke on “The Introduction of Penicillin as a Drug.” A similar event, sponsored by the School and the Connecticut Pharmaceutical Association, in 1950 marked the 25th anniversary of the opening of the college and gave tribute to Dean Johnson and Professor Fenney. The Association ceased to function in 1942 when the affiliation with the University was completed and the graduates were awarded their degrees, with the candidates of the other Schools and Colleges of the University of Connecticut.
There was an absence of alumni activities until 1970 when Dean Schwarting asked retired Dean Hewitt to chair a committee of four alumni to undertake a reactivation of the Association. These alumni – Edric Bates, ’60, Frank Bonelli, ’50, Andrew Grinvalsky, ’59, and Margaret “Peggy” Adams Tourellotte, ’49 were commissioned to write a constitution and by-laws, develop a roster of alumni and establish an advisory group of alumni and students to obtain ideas on the need and role of the proposed organization. Also, this committee was charged with the responsibility of establishing the means for recognizing alumnus achievement. This advisory group consisted of twenty alumni (each from a different graduating class), two students, and Professor Emeritus Fenney.
The committee and advisory group acted rapidly. The first annual meeting and banquet was held in May 1971 at the Faculty-Alumni Center at Storrs. More than 150 alumni and their spouses or guests attended and the membership was announced as 305. The constitution and by-laws were adopted. The officers and a Board of Directors were elected. The officers were the committee originally named by Dean Schwarting and the Directors were the advisory group of alumni and students as follows: Officers – Eric Bates, President; Frank Bonelli, Vice President; Peggy Adams Tourtellotte, Secretary and Andrew Grinvalsky, Treasurer. The Directors were: Shirley H. Ableman, ’50; Robert Auger, ’59; Charles A. Barbato, ’37; Francis B Cole, ’30; Robert Doyle, ’53; Edmund E. Goodmaster, ’33; Robert Grieb, ’39; Leon Halperin, ’31; Harold G. Hewitt (Faculty Representative), Norman Lacina, ’71 (student); Richard LeMay, ’70 (student); Sydney Leventhal, ’43; Peter J. Patten, ’63; Chester A. Potrepka, ’39; Gerald Primavera, ’69; Mitchell Ross, ’54; Louis Ruda, ’28; Italo A. Scarpelli, ’41; Paul Sevigny, ’72; Edward N. Silver, ’49; Charles Sharek, ’52; Morris A. Shenker, ’32; Richard Sorrano, ’68; and Peggy Adams Tourtellotte, ’49.
The guest speaker at the 1971 meeting was Dr. Donald Brodie, Director, Drug-Related Studies, National Institutes of Health, who addressed the assembly on the subject, “Organization for What?” In 1972, the Association recognized the first pair of alumni for distinguished service. These were Lewis E. Kazin, ’34 and James E. O’Brien, ’52. They were honored at the annual meeting and banquet and the members of the graduating class were guests of the Association. A complete list of Distinguished Alumni may be found at the end of this chapter.
In addition, the Association authorized the publication of a biannual Newsletter under the editorship of Dr. Richard E. Lindstrom, ’55 and a member of the faculty of the School since 1968. He oversaw publication of the University of Connecticut Pharmacy Alumni Association Newsletter until 1977 when a new format was implemented by Pharmacy students. A publication called the Script contained information about student organizations and other items of interest to students and alumni. The Script banner was maintained until 1983 when Dr. Kelleher, (B. S. ’51, M. S. ’53) took over as the Faculty Director of the Alumni Association and Editor of the Newsletter. Upon his retirement in 1988, publication of the Newsletter ceased until 1997.
Dean Hewitt served as Faculty Advisor to the Alumni Association until his retirement in 1972. Professor Vincent W. Bernardi, ’63 then assumed these responsibilities until his resignation in 1976 when the responsibilities fell to Dr. Lindstrom along with his editorship of the Newsletter. On the occasion of Dr. Lindstrom’s leave in 1980, Dr. Paul K. Wilkinson, B. S. ’69 was appointed to the leadership of the Alumni Association. He retained this responsibility until his resignation in 1982, when Dean Karl A. Nieforth asked Dr. William J. Kelleher (B. S. ’51, M. S. ’53) to direct the Association and to edit the Newsletter. Dr. Kelleher discharged these joint responsibilities until his retirement in 1988. Dr. Henry A. Palmer (M. S.’60, Ph. D. ’65) served in the role of Alumni Director until 1996. In 1996, Dean Gerald appointed Daniel C. Leone, who had recently retired as Executive Vice-President of the Connecticut Pharmacists Association, as the director of Alumni Relations, a position he holds today.
The Annual Meeting has continued and the membership doubled in the short five-year interval of 1970-75. Members of the graduating classes prior to 1942 were included in the membership of the “new” Association. Thus, the Association was established to include all living graduates of the Connecticut College of Pharmacy and the University of Connecticut School of Pharmacy. In 1984 a new category of membership was announced by Dean Nieforth, that of Honorary Alumni. This new recognition was conferred upon Mrs. Martha Hewitt, Raymond L. Dunn, and John T. Diubinski at the 1984 Annual Alumni Banquet. Since that time, twenty-eight have been so honored and are listed at the end of this chapter.
The Alumni Association provides an annual gift to the School as well as several annual scholarships. The annual gifts have permitted the School to purchase computers and software to more effectively manage alumni affairs, alumni records, teaching support materials and have provided salary support for the Director of the Alumni Association.
Pharmacy graduates have enjoyed outstanding careers in many professional arenas outside of the traditional practitioners’ roles. Several have gone on to make their marks in education including educational administration. Although the School’s records are not complete, it is known that at one time during the 1980′s, six alumni were serving as Deans of schools of Pharmacy, Varro Tyler (Purdue), Ara Paul (Michigan), John Ruggerio (Medical College of Virginia), Edward Eugere (Texas Southern), Julian Fincher (South Carolina), Al Belmonte ( St. Johns). Equal success has been realized within the pharmaceutical industry as evidenced by the large number of alumni who have occupied upper level administrative positions.
Past Recipients of the Distinguished Alumnus (a) Award
• 1972 | Louis Kazin
• 1972 | James O’Brien
• 1973 | Varro Tyler
• 1973 | Fred Casioppo
• 1974 | John Dugan
• 1974 | Lester Abelman
• 1975 | Nicholas Fenney
• 1976 | Edmund Goodmaster
• 1977 | Francis Cole
• 1978 | Barara Israel Levine
• 1979 | Albert White
• 1980 | Robert Grieb
• 1981 | Gus DellaPietra
• 1982 | Anthony P. Simonelli
• 1983 | John J. Basile
• 1984 | Robert F. Steeves
• 1985 | Leroy Beltz
• 1986 | William J. Kelleher
• 1987 | Henry S. Johnson
• 1988 | Daniel C. Leone
• 1989 | Benjamin DeZinno, Jr.
• 1990 | William S. Katz
• 1991 | Jean Paul Gagnon
• 1992 | Jane C. I. Hirsch
• 1993 | Karl A. Nieforth
• 1994 | Samuel S. Kalmanowitz
• 1995 | Gerald H. Weitzman
• 1996 | Sister Suzanne Deliee
• 1997 | Paul F. Davern
• 1998 | Charles D. Hepler
• 1999 | Henry A. Palmer
• 2000 | Robert Pinco
Honorary Alumni Association Membership
• 1984 | Martha Hewitt
• 1984 | Raymond L. Dunn
• 1984 | John T. Dziubinski
• 1986 | William Summa
• 1986 | Frank R. Seaforth
• 1987 | Irene C. Burke
• 1988 | Gerald Bowman
• 1988 | Sheldon S. Sones
• 1990 | Ernest Flesch
• 1990 | L. Nesta Varnum
• 1990 | Philip. C. Varnum
• 1991 | Debra Thorn
• 1991 | Coleen Cherishi
• 1991 | Joseph S. Turi
• 1993 | Hal Kimball
• 1993 | Marge Beecher
• 1994 | David Elkin
• 1994 | Eileen Marshall
• 1996 | Margaret Dziubinski
• 1996 | Edith Goodmaster
• 1996 | Gene Memoli
• 1997 | Susan G. Gaynor
• 1997 | Domenic A. Sammarco
• 1998 | Susan C. Johnson
• 1998 | Philip F. Ranelli
• 1999 | Robert Tendler
• 2000 | No Honoree