YAFI Online Programming //Law Related to Pharmacy Practice

Law

Connecting the Opioid Dots: Prescriptions Down, Fatalities Up

Educational Objectives

After participating in this activity, pharmacists will be able to:

  • Describe the historical and recent trends in the abuse of controlled substances
  • Identify the types of drugs and patterns of use which increase the risk of overdose fatalities.
  • Compare regulatory and public policy efforts to reduce misuse and dangers from prescription and illicit controlled substances.
  • Describe the role of the pharmacist and other health professions in reducing overdose risks.

Session Offered

Release Date: February 18, 2019

Expiration Date: February 15, 2022

Course Fee

Free

Session Codes

19YC03-ACB38 Pharmacist

19YC03-TVK87 Pharmacy Technician

Accreditation Hours

2.0 hours of CE

Abstract

Drug overdose death rates increased almost five-fold between 1999 and 2016 and have impacted all demographic groups. Drug overdose has become the leading cause of accidental death in the U.S. and is largely fueled by opioid drugs, with other drugs also becoming significant factors. In the last decade, heroin and illicitly manufactured synthetic drugs such as fentanyl have replaced prescription opioids as the primary contributors to the overdose crisis. In response to the crisis, government and professional organizations and other policy makers have proposed a variety of solutions to the problem. This lesson will review the development of the problem and some proposed solutions that impact health care providers including addiction prevention and treatment, pain treatment guidelines, and prescribing limits on controlled substances.

Accreditation Statements

The University of Connecticut School of Pharmacy is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education as a provider of continuing pharmacy education.

Pharmacists and pharmacy technicians are eligible to participate in this application-based activity and will receive up to 0.2 CEU (2 contact hours) for completing the activity, passing the quiz with a grade of 70% or better, and completing an online evaluation. Statements of credit are available via the CPE Monitor on- line system and your participation will be recorded with CPE Monitor within 72 hours of submission

ACPE UAN:
0009-0000-19-003-H03-P
0009-0000-19-003-H03-T

Grant funding: Daiichi Sankyo, Inc.

Cost: Free

Initial Release Date: February 18, 2019
Expiration Date: February 15, 2022

To obtain CPE credit, visit the UConn Online CE Center

Use your NABP E-profile ID and the session code 19YC03-ACB38 for pharmacists or 19YC03-TVK87 for pharmacy technicians to access the online quiz and evaluation.

First- time users must pre-register in the Online CE Center. Test results will be displayed immediately and your participation will be recorded with CPE Mon- itor within 72 hours of completing the requirements.

For questions concerning the online CPE activities, email joanne.nault@uconn.edu

Faculty

Gerald Gianutsos, Ph.D., J.D., R.Ph., is an Emeritus Associate Professor of Pharmacology at the University of Connecticut, School of Pharmacy.

Faculty Disclosure

Dr. Gianutsos has no actual or potential conflicts of interest associated with this article.

Disclosure of Discussions of Off-label and Investigational Drug Use

This activity may contain discussion of off label/unapproved use of drugs. The content and views presented in this educational program are those of the faculty and do not necessarily represent those of the University of Connecticut School of Pharmacy. Please refer to the official prescribing information for each product for discussion of approved indications, contraindications, and warnings.

Content

Introduction

"To every discovery mankind has ever made, from the lighting of the first fire to the splitting of the atom, there has been a good side and a bad side. Opium is no different. It can stop pain and, as Thomas Sydenham observed over 300 years ago, few doctors would be hard-hearted enough to practise medicine without it. Millions have been saved by it: yet it has also destroyed millions of lives, enslaved whole cultures and invidiously corrupted human society to its very core."1

 

Readers are no doubt already aware that the “corrupted human society” forecast by British novelist and poet Martin Booth in 1999 is the occurrence of an opioid overdose crisis, which claimed 48,068 lives in 2017. The opioid crisis is the most visible segment of an overall tragedy of fatal drug overdose; total overdose deaths reached 70,237 in 2017 (up from 68,400 in the previous 12-month period [a 9.6% increase], 43,982 in 2013 and 17,000 in 1999).2,3 These alarming statistics place drug overdose as the leading cause of accidental deaths in the U.S., more than traffic accidents, AIDS at its peak, or the numbers dying during the Vietnam War.4

 

The impact of the rise in overdose deaths is so pronounced that in 2017, the life expectancy in the U.S. dropped, attributed at least in part to an increase in drug overdose and suicide. Life expectancy also declined in 2015 and stayed flat in 2016, marking the first three-year period of general decline since the late 1910s.5 However, the current trend is the result of more people dying in their 20s and 30s.

 

A problem of this magnitude is bound to attract attention from many arenas, including legislators and policy makers. In March of 2017, the President’s Commission on Combating Drug Addiction and the Opioid Crisis was established to recommend policies and practices for combating drug addiction with a focus on opiates. The Commission issued a 138-page report in November of 2017, and underscored the seriousness of the issue by asking: “If a terrorist organization was killing 175 Americans a day [the average number of overdose deaths at the time the report was published] on American soil, what would we do to stop them?”6 The Commission made 56 recommendations in many different areas to address the growing problem.6 These include addiction prevention, addiction and overdose treatment and recovery, research and development (especially in pain management and addiction) and increased Federal funding. Pharmacists and technicians have seen first-hand the exacerbation and tragic consequences of the crisis. They should also ask themselves what they can do to help reduce the death toll. This lesson will focus on the scope of the drug overdose problem and review some attempts to alleviate the problem.

References

Full List of References

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