Medicinal Garden

an aerial above the UConn School of Pharmacy Medicinal Garden

The UConn School of Pharmacy's Medicinal Garden has been a labor of love for many including alums, staff, faculty, and students - full story here.  Planting is ongoing and dependent on seasonal availability and conditions. The following list outlines all of the plants intended and their medicinal use. Plants marked with an * are in the garden now or are scheduled to be planted.

The garden design layout is based on the chemical structures of salicylic acid - one of the first pharmaceuticals isolated from plants in the modern pharmacopeia  – and menthol. You will see these most clearly when looking at the garden from above.

A willow, the bark of which is a source for pain relieving salicin, provides focus at one end of the garden.

Thank you to all who have helped make this garden a reality.

Disclaimer: The information outlined below is of a general and historic nature and does not constitute medical advice. Please consult with your physician before using or ingesting any herbal remedy.

Alder

Betulaceae54

Target system: Muscular System, Digestive System, Immune System

Use: Alder has been used to extract a variety of dye colors, using both the bark and the root. A poultice of the leaves has been used to reduce pain and inflammation. Can be used to ease pain with arthritis and muscle aches. Alder in combination with Pussy Willow is used to help cure ulcers and treat early stages of cancer.

Preparation: Medicinal Parts- leaves. The bark is used for dyes. The leaves are made into fusions, poultices and extracts.

Angelica*

Angelica archangelica1

Target system: Respiratory System, Digestive system, Urinary System

Use: Used to relieve intestinal discomfort, flatulence, used to induce sweating (diaphoretic) and reduce fever, help increase excretion (diuretic). The roots of this plant have been used internally for digestive problems, gastric ulcers, loss of appetite, migraines, bronchitis, chronic fatigue, and menstrual and obstetric complaints. Known to induce menstruation. Externally, the leaves may be crushed and placed on the chest and lung area to help aid in bronchitis or other respiratory problems. The plant is also known as an 'Angel plant', used to help with nervous headaches.

Preparation: Medicinal Parts- whole plant. The roots should be dug up during Autumn of the first year. The whole herb should be cut from the roots up during June, once the stem has thickened. These parts should be cut so as to dry in the sun. Once the leaves are dried, they can be crushed up and placed externally. The leaves can also be used in a poultice.

Anise Hyssop*

Agastache Foeniculum2

Target system: Immune System, Cardiac System, Respiratory System

Use: The leaves of this plant aid in reducing fever and premenstrual symptoms. An infusion of the leaves is used to treat for colds, depression, and anxiety. A cold infusion is used to treat pains in the chest (such as when the lungs are sore from too much coughing). Extracts of the leaves have also been found to fight against the polio virus. A poultice of leaves and stems can be used to treat burns and the roots can be used as an aid to defend against cancer cells and the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Other components of anise hyssop have antifungal and antibacterial properties. All components of the plant are known to have antioxidant and antifungal properties. Certain sections of the plant can be used to treat cardiac disorders. May also aid in respiratory problems such as coughing and bronchitis.

Preparation: Medicinal Parts- leaves. Extracts of the leaves can be made into essential oils. These can be applied externally. Poultice of the leaves can also be made to be placed on the chest or lungs.

Autumn Crocus*

Colchium Autumnale3

Target system: Nervous System, Muscular System

Use: In smaller quantities it is used to treat gout (gouty headaches and swellings of joints) and rheumatism arthritis, and can also be used as a sedative. It is a very strong muscle relaxer, it aides in excretions, but may also cause nausea and vomiting. The bulbs and seeds have also been used for neuropathic pain, tearing pain from hips to lower limbs, and constipation. Used for gonorrhea. WARNING: TOXIC

Preparation: Medicinal Parts- bulbs/seeds. The bulbs of this plant and the seeds are dried and macerated. An acetic tincture is extracted and used in varying doses.

Bayberry

Myrica Cerifera63

Target system: Immune System, Digestive System, Circulatory System

Use: Anti Inflammatory and antioxidant. Increases circulatory flow but is known to be an astringent and will thereby dry deficiency mucous membranes. Known to stop hemorrhages and helps increase muscle tension. It has been used to increase the tension in uterine contractions to help with labor. Treats prolapse. Treats mouth sores and bleeding gums. In large doses, it will cause nausea.

Preparation: Medicinal Parts- bark/fruit/leaves. The bayberry can be made into a wax and used externally. The bark can be dried and powdered. Made into tea or tinctures.

Bearberry*

Arctostaphylos Uva-Ursi49

Target system: Reproductive System, Urinary System, Immune System

Use: Known to have antibacterial properties. Helps with treating and preventing urinary tract infections. Shown to fight against antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Increases urination to help with flushing toxins in the body. Treats kidney stones, infection of the intestines, chronic diarrhea, and inducing menstruation.

Preparation: Medicinal Parts- leaves. Leaves are dried or used an infusion: 1.5 to 4.0 g three times daily. Taken as infusions, teas, or powdered extracts.

Bee Balm*

Monarda Didyma4

Target system: Urinary System, Integumentary System

Use: This plant is mainly used as a stimulant. The leaves may also be used in producing excretions from the body (like an herbal diuretic), and may produce sweating, flatulence, urination. However, the plant also reduces nausea and vomiting. Also was used to induce menstruation. Extracts of this plant can be applied topically on sprains, infections and other skin disorders. Caution should be warranted if a potent extract left too long on the skin. Boiling the herb in water and gargling this mixture can help with toothaches, sore throats, and mouth infections.

Preparation: Medicinal Parts- leaves. Leaves can be dried and used in tincture. A paste of the plant can also be made to be applied externally.

Black Cohosh*

Actaea Racemosa5

Target system: Reproductive System, Muscular System

Use: Was used a common remedy for women that experienced painful menstruation symptoms and symptoms of menopause (hot flashes, insomnia, irritability). Has been used externally on the skin to improve complexion, warts, and acne. Can also be applied externally onto swollen joints for arthritis. Also was used as a remedy for tinnitus.

Preparation: Medicinal Parts- roots/rhizomes. They are dried up and smashed into a powder, taken in tablets or other preference. Can also be made into a tincture. WARNING: May cause liver damage, facial swelling, gastrointestinal problems like diarrhea and indigestion.

Blueberry

Vaccinium Corymbosum64

Target system: Urinary System, Immune System, Integumentary System

Use: High levels of antioxidants and anti inflammatory properties. Blueberries are known to help with skin complexion as in with acne. Also known to improve eyesight. Blueberries are known to help with aging and ease the defects that come with aging. Helps reduce cholesterol. Prevents urinary tract infection.

Preparation: Medicinal Parts- fruit. Berries are completely edible.

Borage*

<em>Borago Officinalis<sup>6</sup></em>

<strong>Target system:</strong> Reproductive System, Respiratory System, Cardiac System, Immune System

<span><strong>Use:</strong> Used to treat symptoms of menopause: hot flashes, hormonal imbalance, and menstrual problems. Used to alleviate symptoms of a cold, respiratory infections, and bronchitis. It has also been studied for its effects on diabetes, multiple sclerosis, and heart conditions. Shown to have antioxidant properties as well. </span>

<strong>Preparation:</strong> <span>Medicinal Parts- seeds.</span> Extraction of borage seed oil is used.

Bugleweed*

Ajuga Reptans50

Target system: Immune System, Circulatory System

Use: Used to reduce pain from bruises and small wounds. A tonic could help with a sore throat and oral ulcers. Used to increase digestion, acting as a laxative. Helps reduce internal bleeding and acts to lower blood pressure. Used help treat jaundice, clotting in the liver and spleen. Commonly used to reduce hyperthyroidism.

Preparation: Medicinal Parts- aerial parts/shoots.

Burdock*

Arctium Lappa7

Target system: Circulatory System, Integumentary System

Use: Burdock root is very useful in the treatment of skin conditions. It is known to cleanse and tonify or increased the energy of the body. When taken internally, it has been used to treat acne, eczema, rosacea, and psoriasis. It does so by cleansing the circulatory system of toxins. It has also been helpful in aiding painful joints in rheumatoid arthritis. Some believe it to be useful in treating cancer when taken as a tea.

Preparation: Medicinal Parts- roots. It may be dug up, dried, and used in teas. A tincture of the root can be made or the root can be chewed.

Calendula*

Calendula Officinalis9

Target system: Integumentary System, Circulatory System, Digestive System, Muscular System, Reproductive System, Immune System

Use: This plant has extensive uses in every system of the body. To begin, it is widely used as an antiseptic. Used on cuts, wounds, burns, diaper rash and scars to provide healing. It is also taken in internally to cleanse the blood and aid in skin disorders such as eczema, rashes, dermatitis and varicose veins, and acne. It detoxifies the body and in doing so, treats internal infections and disorders including gastrointestinal ulcers, kidney stones, stomach tumors, digestive disorders, and cancer. In addition, it has anti inflammatory properties both for external and for internal organs (sprains, bruises, etc.). It can reduce swelling in muscles which will decrease spasms and convulsions. May also be used in epileptic disorders. In some instances, a wash made of the flowers can be used for eyesight disorders, poor eyesight, conjunctivitis, mouth ulcers or oral wounds, and sore throat. Through detoxing, it increases urination, sweating, and induces menstruation. It decreases fevers and internal bleeding. In the reproductive system, it decreases severe menstrual cramps and helps with yeast infections. It has antifungal and antiseptic properties and has been historically used to treat measles, smallpox and liver failure. Used for athlete's foot, ringworm, and other fungal infections.

Preparation: Medicinal Parts- flowers/leaves. The flower heads (petals mostly) are the main medicinal product and are dried and used in teas, decoctions, tinctures, and made in salves or ointments. The leaves are also dried and crushed in some instances.

Catnip*

Nepeta Cataria10

Target system: Digestive System, Immune System, Nervous System, Muscular System

Use: In the digestive system it is used to clear out bowels, help with diarrhea, constipation, flatulence, and stomach aches. The plant has been used to kill intestinal parasites and  worms. It increases urination and sweating and will reduce fevers. It is used as a cough suppressant and helps with the flu, colds, and bronchitis. Also used to soothe muscle spasms, as a sedative, to induce menstruation and increase appetite. Due to sedative quality, it is used to calm the nerves, seizure episodes, insomnia, headaches and migraines, and anxiety.

Preparation: Medicinal Parts- flowers/leaves. Dried leaves or the whole flowering top and leaf is used in teas, tinctures, decoctions, and essential oils.

Cayenne*

Capsicum Annuum11

Target system: Muscular System, Digestive System, Immune System, Respiratory System

Use: The pepper is used in many traditional cultures as a remedy for sore throats, tooth aches, the flu and colds, headaches, and migraines. Helps with lung discomfort from coughing, asthma, and bronchitis. It induces sweating. Cayenne is very popular in treating rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and very stiff joints and the pain associated with it. It is also used to help with cardiac disorders. The fruit and seeds have antioxidant properties, combat against cancer, and is known to help with diabetes. When used externally in a poultice, it can be placed on sprains and swellings.

Preparation: Medicinal Parts- fruit/seeds. The pepper is used in many culinary dishes. Can be dried and consumed. Can be made into a poultice and applied topically.

Chamomile*

Matricaria Recutita51

Target system: Immune System, Muscular System, Nervous System, Reproductive System, Circulatory System, Integumentary System

Use: Chamomile flowers are great for inflammation, reducing rheumatic pain, nerve swellings, external swellings, sciatica facial bloating caused by infections. Helps fight against fever and has anticancer properties. When a tea of the flowers is gargled, it helps with sore throat, oral infections or sores, inflammation of the gums or mucous membranes. Chamomile is said to help with anxiety, stress, insomnia, depression, and reduce mental agitation. Helps strengthen and shine hair as well as skin, working as a tonic. Chamomile is used as an antioxidant, treating wounds, blisters, and internal ulcers. Treats skin aberrations, eczema, bruises and burns. Used to treat diaper rash, ear and eye infections, conjunctivitis, and blocked tear ducts. Treats digestive disorders, increases bowel movements, reduces flatulence, anorexia, nausea, and vomiting. Women have historically used chamomile to induce menstruation and strengthen uterus lining while also helping with cramps, back pain and bed sores.

Preparation: Medicinal Parts- whole plant. The flowers can be dried and used in tea, can be powdered or properties can be extracted in forms of distillation. The flower heads can be made into poultices. The whole plant can be made into commercial items: lotions, ointments, etc.

Chinese Juniper*

Juniperus Chinensis55

Target system: Digestive System, Respiratory System, Immune System

Use: Studied to have antitumor properties, used for inflammation. Treats arthritis. Helps in the digestive system for stomach discomforts, bowel & digestion regulation. Reduces diarrhea and abdominal disorders. Reduces kidney stones and helps detoxify the blood and increasing urine output. Also used as a sedative. Known to also help with respiratory discomforts such as asthma and pulmonary tuberculosis.

Preparation: Medicinal Parts- fruits/leaves/roots/stems. Made into a tea, decoction, and extract.

Chives*

Allium Schoenoprasum12

Target system: Integumentary System, Digestive System, Circulatory System

Use: Chives have anti-inflammatory properties that aid in wounds, sunburns, and sore throats. It is also known to detox blood, lower blood pressure and glucose levels, helps with diabetes and cholesterol, and improves digestion.

Preparation: Medicinal Parts- aerial parts. Either eaten in culinary dishes, dried or fresh, or made in poultice. Can also be macerated and placed topically.

Comfrey*

Symphytum Officinale14

Target system: Muscular System, Immune System

Use: This plant is used for its anti inflammatory, analgesic properties. Used on swollen joints, muscles, aches, arthritis, and joint injuries. Extracts of the plant can be used on sprains, bruises, to heal wounds, and contusions. Topical application of the plant can be used on back pain and other muscle pains. Some studies show comfrey inducing callus formation.

Preparation: Medicinal Parts- flowers/leaves/roots. The root can be dried and made into poultice, tincture. Ointments are made and used topically for pain/inflammation reduction.

Coneflower (purple)*

Echinacea Purpurea15

Target system: Respiratory System, Immune System

Use: This plant is known to have antibacterial and antiviral properties. Used to help with respiratory infections, especially those that are viral infections, and symptoms of the flu and colds. Alleviates bronchitis and aids in lung discomfort. Known to possess cytotoxic properties as well as aiding against depression and anxiety. Has some compounds that suggest protection against genetic mutations.

Preparation: Medicinal Parts- roots. The root can be dried and the grinded to a powder.

Cramp Bark

Viburnum Opulus65

Target system: Muscular System, Nervous System, Circulatory System

Use: The berries are toxic raw and must be prepared accordingly. The stem has been used as a sedative, reducing muscle spasms, cramps, tremors and tension. Clears build of toxins around muscles. Reduces cramps involving childbirth and menstruation. Native Americans used this to treat mumps. Used to increase circulation and better coordination of the body. Helps with irritable bowel syndrome, digestive and intestinal cramps. WARNING: TOXIC.

Preparation: Medicinal Parts- bark. The bark is dried and made into tinctures. Berries are toxic but used in jelly or alcohol when cooked right.

Creeping Thyme*

Thymus Serpyllum52

Target system: Immune System, Muscular System, Respiratory System, Integumentary System

Use: Thyme works as an antiseptic and antibacterial. Cleans and disinfects wounds, cuts, scrapes, insect bites/stings and aberrations. Cleanses the skin and kills bacteria causing acne, improves oily skin, dermatitis, and sciatica. Works to kill parasites, intestinal worms, gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, fungi and yeast infections. Studied for effects in strengthening liver functions. Increases appetite. Reduces infections of the respiratory system, whooping cough, bronchial catarrh, bronchitis and laryngitis. Reduces inflammation, treating rheumatoid arthritis.

Preparation: Medicinal Parts- aerial parts. The leaves of the plant are used in cooking, infusions, and essential oils and tinctures.

Elderberry*

Sambucus Nigra16

Target system: Immune System, Urinary System, Circulatory System, Respiratory System

Use: With the elderberry fruit containing many vitamins and minerals, it proves to be a beneficial addition to overall diet. It contains many antioxidants. It is also used to induce sweating and defecation (laxative) and treat diarrhea. It induces urination and is used to detox the body. Used to help with stomach aches and common cold symptoms: sore throat and sinus congestion. The flowers themselves have expectorant properties and help the body lubricate mucosal canals. It increases the function of the circulatory system. The leaves and the inner bark are known to induce vomiting and diarrhea.

Preparation: Medicinal Parts- bark/fruit/leaves.

False Indigo

Baptisia Australis17

Target system: Digestive System, Immune System, Respiratory System, Integumentary System

Use: False indigo has predominately been used for conditions of the digestive system. It can induce both vomiting but also stop vomiting depending on how the plant is prepared. Used for constipation and stomach pain. Will induce sweating and urination. The plant has anti inflammatory properties that help in the respiratory tracts with bronchitis, sore throat and other respiratory infections. It will help reduce fevers. Placing a cold brew of the plant in the mouth can help reduce tooth aches and inflammation. Native Americans used the plant for tonsillitis, laryngitis, to help with oral injuries or wounds. The juice of the leaves are said to soften the skin and can be used on bruises, sprains, and external injuries. The juice has been less commonly used as a cleanser for swollen or inflamed eyes.

Preparation: Medicinal Parts- bark/leaves. The leaves can be used fresh or dried. The inner bark is also used. Can be made into a tea, and juice from the leaves can be extracted.

Fennel

Foeniculum Vulgare18

Target system: Digestive, Reproductive, Respiratory, Cardiac

Use: In the digestive system, it helps relieve flatulence, digestive discomfort, and induces urination. Has anti-inflammatory properties which help with internal organs. In the respiratory system, it is used as a bronchodilator and helps reduce blood pressure. Potent effects on the reproductive system, inducing menstruation and improving milk production in mothers. Some studies show fennel to have antifungal properties. The seeds can be eaten to improve eyesight and treat glaucoma. May improve memory.

Preparation: Medicinal Parts- seeds. The fennel seeds can be boiled in water and drunk or used to rinse eyes. They can also be incorporated in a variety of meals and eaten.

Feverfew*

Tanacetum Parthenium19

Target system: Immune System, Digestive System

Use: Feverfew is known to help with severe migraines and headaches. As the name implies, it helps reduce fevers, treat nausea and vomiting, and symptoms of a cold. It helps reduce inflammation and treat rheumatoid arthritis. It may also combat against cancer and reduce allergic reactions by inhibiting histamine release.

Preparation: Medicinal Parts- leaves. Feverfew is made into supplemental tablets, capsules, or taken as liquid extracts.

Flowering Dogwood

Cornus Florida56

Target system: Immune System

Use: Found to have antiparasitic properties - namely anti plasmodium (viruses within Plasmodium genus such as Plasmodium falciparum, malaria, Leishmania tarentolae, or leishmaniasis). Historically used to treat malaria in North America by Native Americans. Has been found to help reduce fevers. Used as a replacement for quinine in the Civil War.

Preparation: Medicinal Parts- bark. Dried and powdered bark extracted with ethanol.

Flowering Spurge

Euphorbia Corollata20

Target system: Digestive System, Immune System, Integumentary System, Reproductive System, Urinary System

Use: Works in the digestive system to induce vomiting and purging. Used for diarrhea, liver damage, constipation, bloating, slow digestive sys., flatulence, internal inflammation and other digestive disorders. This plant can also help with simple stomach aches or pains. It restores the skin from eczema, wounds, sores, rashes, acne, boils, psoriasis, lesions, and direct injuries to the skin. The plant has also helped with reducing hair loss. It has antiseptic qualities that will soothe skin irritation or itching and ringworm or bacterial infections. The plant has been known to fight parasites and many venereal diseases: gonorrhea, syphilis. In some species of Euphorbia, it was recorded as a treatment for infertility, inducing menstruation and treating various reproductive disorders.

Preparation: Medicinal Parts- leaves/roots. The root of the plant is dried and taken internally. Juice of the leaves used topically. The leaves can be made into tea.

Foxglove*

Digitalis Purpurea21

Target system: Cardiovascular System, Urinary System, Immune System, Integumentary System

Use: The foxglove plant has strong properties that work in the cardiovascular system. The plant helps stabilize heart rhythms produce stronger pulses. However, this could be very dangerous for anyone who does not require the help. The digoxin extract has been made into a drug for heart failure and other chronic heart disorders. The plant will also induce urination, and stimulation of bowel movements. This will lower blood pressure. It works as a tonic, cleansing the urinary and circulatory system- tonifying kidneys. Other uses of the plant include treating external wounds, lesions and ulcers. Internally, it heals ulcers and helps with regulating blood sugar as well as having antioxidant properties. WARNING: TOXIC

Preparation: Medicinal Parts- leaves/seeds. The leaves dried and powdered are used, the ripe-dried seeds, "fresh leaves of the 1-year old plant or the leaves of the 2nd year old plant."

Garlic*

Allium Sativum22

Target system: Immune System, Respiratory System, Circulatory System, Cardiac System, Urinary System, Integumentary System, Digestive System

Use: Garlic is known to work throughout the entire body. It has antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral properties that protect the body from all kinds of infections ( strep throat, athletes foot, H.pylori, parasites, etc.) Eating garlic will help heal stomach ulcers, oral thrush, swollen joints, and a variety of systemic disorders. It works to strengthen the immune system. It helps to reduce fevers, fight colds, and decongest the body, and act as an antibiotic. Treats respiratory infections: tuberculosis, bronchitis, emphysema, chronic pulmonary diseases, etc. Consuming raw garlic can also reduce high blood pressure, regulate blood sugar and detox the blood of heavy metals. Garlic is also used to heal sexual impotence. It has an overall rejuvenating effect on all systems of the body.

Preparation: Medicinal Parts- clove. The garlic cloves are eaten raw, cooked, dried and powdered, made into a tea, tincture or decoction.

Gentian (american)*

Gentiana23

Target system: Digestive System, Urinary System, Circulatory System

Use: Gentiana works to induce urination and regulate menstruation (over bleeding or non-existent periods). A unique preparation of this plant can cause abortion. It aids the digestive system and treats liver and spleen disorders. It will help with diarrhea heartburn, stomach ache, and infections in the intestines. This includes reducing inflammation of internal organs (hepatitis) and increasing their functionality. It strengthens the liver, detoxes the kidneys, and increases bile production from the gallbladder. It has been used to increase appetite and increase the absorption of nutrients in the blood and lessen fatigue. Historically, this plant was used as an antidote for snake bites, scorpion stings, and many venomous animals as well as treating malaria.

Preparation: Medicinal Parts- roots. The root of this plant is used, macerated and combined with water. A concoction with other herbs or a honey paste can be made. Extracts are made into tea, capsules and other consumable products.

Goldenrod*

Solidago Odora24

Target system: Respiratory System, Immune System, Urinary System

Use: This plant is used to treat respiratory disorders, infections, sore throats, etc. It is used to reduce fevers and It can treat toothaches and heal mouth sores. Placing the root topically on bruises, sprains, and insect stings can speed healing. Tinctures of the plant have been taken orally to help with bladder or kidney problems.

Preparation: Medicinal Parts- leaves/roots. The plant could be boiled in water and made into a syrup. Leaves chewed on and the roots can be made into paste, ointment or tinctures. Essential oils, infusions, and facial steams are made from the flowers. Made into tea.

Goldenseal*

Hydrastis Canadensis25

Target system: Immune System, Respiratory System, Digestive System

Use: This plant is taken as a natural antibiotic. It is said to possess antibacterial and antifungal properties. It is used to strengthen the immune system and fight colds/flu. Used to help soothe sore throats, inflammation of the sinuses and treat respiratory ailments. Historically used to treat hay fever. Used to clean wounds, cuts and injuries from bacteria. It helps with digestive problems (stomach ache, flatulence, constipation, diarrhea). This plant has strong properties to fight urinary tract infections and infections of the eyes and infections in the mouth, typically infections in orifices of the body.

Preparation: Medicinal Parts- roots. The root is dried and powdered into tablets/capsules. It can be made into tinctures and combined with other herbs.

Hemlock*

Conium Maculatum57

Target system: Nervous System, Digestive System, Respiratory System, Immune System

Use: Otherwise known as poison hemlock, this plant is very toxic to the neurological system. It will induce vomiting, paralysis, muscle spasm, irregular respiration, convulsions, coma and death. Conversely has been used an an antidote for poisoning with strychnine and other toxic substances. Used externally on breast tumors and to induce sedative qualities. Used before World War 1 for their antispasmodic properties to treat epileptic patients, whooping cough, severe stomach pains. Historically has been used to treat tumors. WARNING: TOXIC.

Preparation: Medicinal Parts- flowers/leaves/roots/seeds. TOXIC when taken internally but seeds can be dried and powdered and used externally. Juice of the leaf is used in combination with other herbs and roots can be prepared accordingly. Tinctures are made from the fresh flowering plant.

Hellebore (green)*

Veratrum Viride26

Target system: Digestive System, Immune System, Cardiocirculatory system, Nervous System

Use: This plant is widely used to aide in immune discomforts : common cold, flu like symptoms, sore throat stomach pains, and to induce purging. This plant is also prepared to aide in snake bites, and treat venereal diseases, wounds, and bruises. Hypotension and bradycardia are also a result of excess usage of this plant. Used to Sedate.

Preparation: Medicinal Parts- roots. The root can be chewed and the rhizome can be crushed and applied topically on bites. Tinctures and extracts are made from the rhizome as well as tea.

Hydrangea

Hydrangea Paniculata67

Target system: Urinary System

Use: Historically used to cleanse the urinary system. Helps with pain from urinary deposits and possibly stones. Potent diuretic and strengthens kidney functions.

Preparation: Medicinal Parts- rhizome/roots. The roots are usually steeped in water to make tea and tinctures.

Juniper (Sargent)*

Juniperus Chinensis 'sargentii62

Target system: Immune System, Urinary System, Integumentary System

Use: The berries are used as an antiseptic, cleansing wounds, cuts and scrapes. Acts to detox the body, increasing urination and treating bladder inflammation. Treats acne, eczema, cellulite, and skin abnormalities. Strengthens the immune system and helps reduce joint inflammation.

Preparation: Medicinal Parts- berries. The ripe cones and berries are used to flavor liquor. The needles can be burned for incense.

Lady’s Mantle*

Alchemilla Vulgaris27

Target system: Reproductive System, Digestive System

Use: Uses mainly include antibacterial, antioxidant, antiviral. Used for hypertension and relaxation of blood vessels. Thus helps with menstruation problems: pains, swelling, bloating, menopause symptoms. Will help strengthen the womb and help treat thrush, vaginal itching and irregular vaginal discharges. Used to help with infertility. A leaf decoction helps reduce diarrhea and protects liver. Can help ease sore throat, detox the body, and aide in digestive disorders. Used to help with acne and skin damages.

Preparation: Medicinal Parts- aerial parts. The aerial part of this plant are made into tinctures, teas, and supplements. Known to be made into douches for cleansing.

Lamb’s Ear*

Stachys Byzantina28

Target system: Nervous System, Immune System

Use: Can be used as a sedative, ease headaches. Works as an antibacterial to heal wounds, scrapes, insect bites. Used for bladder stones. Historically used for gout.

Preparation: Medicinal Parts- leaves. Leaves are edible, crushed and applied topically or made into tea.

Lavender*

Lavandula spp29

Target system: Nervous System, Immune System, Digestive System, Muscular System, Reproductive

Use: Lavender is a very soothing plant. It is used to treat depression, anxiety, and disorders of the nervous system, cognitive function and mood equalizer, headaches. Drinking a tea of lavender or inhaling the aroma of lavender helps regulate sleep. Antispasmodic, smooth muscle relaxer, alleviates pain from carpal syndrome, and varicose ulcers. Antimicrobial properties against fungi and bacteria; helps clean cuts, scrapes and insect bites, allergies, burns, bruises. Used in digestive upset such as stomach aches, increases digestion and bile flow. Has been used for kidney abnormalities and treats nausea and is a diuretic. Aphrodisiac properties.

Preparation: Medicinal Parts- flowers. Flowers of the plant are made into essential oils, applied topically, can be made into tea, made into tinctures from extracts. Made into many commercial products (soap, perfume, etc.)

Lemon Balm*

Melissa Officinalis30

Target system: Nervous System, Cardiovascular System, Digestive System, Respiratory System, Immune System, Reproductive System

Use: Works through the nervous system to improve cognition, memory, anxiety, depression, vertigo or syncope, migraines and help with sleep disorders. Known to also improve cardiac function. Properties include antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antispasmodic. Used to reduce muscle spasms, epileptic seizures and strokes. Helps reduce blood glucose level and reduce cancerous activity. The leaves are known to aid with scorpion stings, insect or spider bites, as well as mushroom intoxication. Could help induce menstruation and reduce pains of pregnancy. In the digestive system, helps regulate bowel movements, flatulence, treats intestinal ulcers and stomach discomfort. Historically used to treat toothaches, ear aches, sore throats, coughing and morning sickness. Used to help with asthma and respiratory disorders. Helps with severe or minor swelling and pain accompanying arthritis. Used to purify the circulatory system and cleanse wounds. Leaves are used to cure conjunctivitis and improve eyesight.

Preparation: Medicinal Parts- aerial parts. The leaves are made into infusions, decoctions and poultices. Teas are drunk and extracts are made into oils then applied topically. A compress of freshly crushed leaves are applied externally. Baths can be taken with the leaves.

Lovage*

Levisticum officinale31

Target system: Digestive system. Immune System, Respiratory System, Integumentary System, Reproductive System

Use: Antibacterial properties. Helps with flushing toxins from the body by increasing urine excretions. Helps fight against kidney stones and treats flatulence. Strengthens respiratory system. Treats skin damage, eczema, dermatitis, and acne. Aids in reproductive health.

Preparation: Medicinal Parts- rhizome/roots.

Marjoram*

Origanum Majorana32

Target system: Nervous System, Circulatory System, Immune System, Reproductive System

Use: Used to promote longevity. Reduces agitation, grief, stress and anxiety. Works as a sedative to dilate vessels to reduce hypertension and improve circulation. Includes antispasmodic properties to relax muscles. Inhalation of the plant relieves migraines and headaches. Antibacterial and antiviral properties help fight colds, flus, and lung and chest infections. Treats digestive disorders to improve bowel movement and strengthen intestinal contractions. In the reproductive system, it helps to ease menstrual cramps and reduces sexual drive.

Preparation: Medicinal Parts- leaves. Essential oil of the leaves are made to apply topically on chest for infections or made as aroma therapy for deep inhalation. Tea of the leaves also made.

Marsh Mallow*

Althaea Officinalis33

Target system: Immune System, Digestive System, Respiratory System

Use: Useful to treat insect bites, stings and wounds. Applied topically on eczema. Used for heartburn, ulcers, irritable bowel syndrome, and hiatus hernias. Helps with respiratory discomforts, dry coughs, heaving. Treats dry skin when drunk as a tea.

Preparation: Medicinal Parts- leaves/roots. Leaves and the roots high mucilage. Roots can be powdered and made into paste to treat topical irritates. Leaves or roots should be soaked overnight and the water can be drunk.

Meadow Sweet*

Filipendula Ulmaria34

Target system: Digestive System, Urinary System

Use: Has antacid, astringent, and antiinflammatory properties. Mainly used for diuretic purposes. Will relax an overactive digestive system. Used for stomach acid reflux, heartburn, and hiatus hernias. Used for indigestive and diverticulitis. Helps with flatulence and cleansing urinary abnormalities. Used to treat summer diarrhea and fevers. Used for joint pain involving arthritis and rheumatism.

Preparation: Medicinal Parts- aerial parts. Made into tea.

Mint*

pycnanthemum spp.35

Target system: Nervous System, Respiratory System, Muscular System

Use: Works as a stimulant, increases mental clarity, dilated respiratory canals, expectorant and detoxifier. Has antibacterial properties, cleans wounds, insect bites, abrasions of the skin, and swollen gums. May also ease menstrual pains, muscular pains and pains with arthritis.

Preparation: Medicinal Parts- aerial parts. The leaves are mostly made into teas, consumed, cooked. Mint is made into a large variety of commercial items, lotions, perfume, etc. Made into tinctures, essential oils and salves.

Oriental Poppy*

Papaver Orientale36

Target system:

Use: Used as a mild sedative and muscle relaxer. Can help with insomnia, anxiety and stress. Treats respiratory discomforts, throat infections, coughing and asthma.

Preparation: Medicinal Parts- flowers/seeds. The petals of the flowers are dried and made into tea.

Periwinkle – Madagascar*

Catharanthus Roseus37

Target system: Immune System, Digestive System, Circulatory System

Use: Extract from the leaves are used as a laxative and a strong antidiabetic. Can be used for digestive disorders: dyspepsia, stomach pains. In South America, has been used to treat sore throats and laryngitis. Has been used as an eye wash to cleanse and disinfect. Drugs made with this plant include vincaleukoblastine for its properties against Hodgkin's Disease and vincristine against childhood leukemia and breast cancer.

Preparation: Medicinal Parts- leaves. Aqueous extracts from the leaves

Pine (Eastern White)*

Pinus Strobus58

Target system: Respiratory System, Immune System

Use: A poultice is used as an antiseptic for cuts, burns, boils and sores. Beneficial for respiratory system and mucous membrane issues such as colds, influenza, and tuberculosis. Promotes excretion of phlegm and is still used in commercial cough syrups. High in vitamin C and has been used to help scurvy sufferers.

Preparation: Medicinal Parts- bark/pine needles. Needles in steam baths or used in inhalers. A poultice can be made by grinding up the bark.

Pussy Willow

Salix Discolor68

Target system: Immune System

Use: Used to help with ulcers and treat early stages of cancer. Pussy Willow in combination with other herbs can be used to treat intense coughing, respiratory distress and the flu symptoms.

Preparation: Medicinal Parts- bark/stems/young shoots. Can be used fresh or collected during Autumn and dried in bundles during the winter. Should not be kept in storage for longer than one season.

Red Baneberry*

Actaea erythrocarpa38

Target system: Immune System, Reproductive System, Cardiovascular System

Use: Historically used by Native Americans to treat reproductive disorders. Treats irregular menstruation and postpartum pains. Treats flu symptoms. It is however, toxic to the heart and can cause cardiac arrest. WARNING: TOXIC.

Preparation: Medicinal Parts- roots.

Red Sprite Winterberry (M & F)*

Ilex Verticillata74

Target system: Immune System, Digestive System

Use: Historically used by Native Americans to treat digestive disorders, diarrhea and internal parasites. Has been said to help with liver disorders. Used to ease fevers and help with skin disorders. Although there isn't enough scientific evidence to support these claims.

Preparation: Medicinal Parts- bark/leaves. The bark is steeped with water for tea and the leaves are crushed and used externally.

River Birch*

Betula Nigra60

Target system: Urinary System, Immune System

Use: Wounds and urinary pain ranging from difficulty urinating to bladder and kidney stones. Treats cholera infantum. An infusion of the bark aids with 'milky' urine. Chewing leaves helps with dysentery. A salve made from boiling the buds and adding sulphur can be put on wounds. Drinking a leaf tea can help treat intestinal worms. Used as a mouthwash for sores. Helps with inflammation due to arthritis.

Preparation: Medicinal Partsbark/buds/leaves. Made into ointments, salves, and infusions.

Rose Hips*

Rosa Rugosa39

Target system: Nervous System, Immune System, Digestive System, Urinary System, Integumentary System, Circulatory System, Reproductive System

Use: Rich in antioxidants and antimicrobial properties, anti inflammatory, antidiabetic and anticancer properties. Rose Hips have been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis, diabetes, hyperlipidaemia, and obesity. Helps strengthen kidneys and to treat kidneys disorders. Also helps with decreasing the concentration of toxins accumulated in the liver and increasing metabolism. Known to also treat diarrhea, peptic ulcers, bloating and nausea. Recent studies have shown extracts to help with memory loss in patients exhibiting alzheimer's as well as reducing seizures in epileptic patients. Used to treat skin disorders: atopic dermatitis, melanoma, acne, age-related wrinkles, skin damage and increase skin moisture and health. This plant has protecting, rejuvenating properties that promote longevity by increasing the production of red blood cells. In some historical contexts, it is used for reproductive disorders in women, treating irregular menstruation, balancing hormones, menopausal symptoms, and acute mastitis.

Preparation: Medicinal Parts- buds/leaves. The bud of the plant can be dried and made into extracts or tinctures. The leaves have also been used medicinally.

Rosemary*

Rosmarinus Officinalis40

Target system: Integumentary System, Circulatory System, Nervous System, Digestive System

Use: Works as a stimulate to lift spirit while increasing circulation to the brain. This helps with cognitive function, and memory and helps with preventing hair loss, dandruff and improving hair health. When massaged onto the body, rosemary can help with alleviating aches and pains. Releases flatulence discomfort and helps with indigestion, gallstones, and liverish. Used in depression, stress, and headaches. Tea of rosemary gargle for sore throats.

Preparation: Medicinal Parts- aerial parts. Rosemary with cider vinegar used in hair. Tea of Rosemary gargled or drunk. Extracts and essential oils are made out of the leaves and stem. The leaves are used in cooking and flavoring.

Rue*

Ruta Graveolens41

Target system: Immune System, Digestive System, Nervous System, Respiratory System

Use: Used for croup, colic, coughs and headaches. Works as an antidote for mushroom poisoning. Juice of plant given for bruising and restlessness. Alleviates strained ligaments, eye strains and migraines, rheumatism and restlessness from sciatica. Helps with tooth infection, treats prolapsed rectum, constipation, and loose stools that contain blood. Used to induce relaxation for sleep.

Preparation: Medicinal Parts- aerial parts. Juice of entire plant before flowering. The leaves are the major medicinal part but stems can be used as well.

Sassafras*

Sassafras Albidum59

Target system: Immune System

Use: Used to strengthen liver with the appropriate doses. The FDA had also found it in other doses to be dangerous for the liver. Used as a microbial to cleanse and sterilize wounds, cuts, scrapes. WARNING: TOXIC.

Preparation: Medicinal Parts- Root bark/leaves. Oil of sassafras is very common. Ground leaves are used in cooking.

Sage*

Salvia Officinalis42

Target system: Digestion System, Nervous System, Reproductive System, Immune System, Respiratory System

Use: Properties include astringency, stimulatory, antiseptic, carminative, antispasmodic, and nervine. Helps with depression, anxiety and confusion especially in elders. Has also been used for indigestion, flatulence, loss of appetite and overproduction of mucus on the stomach. Helps with excessive sweating during day and night. Will strengthen lungs experiencing recurrent coughs. Will help with menopause symptoms and hot flashes, menstrual cramps and tender breasts pre-menstruation. Cold tea of sage will dry up breast milk. Used as a gargle and mouthwash for sore throats, laryngitis and tonsillitis, mouth ulcers, and inflamed or sensitive gums. Used to disinfect topical wounds. Known to be a strong antibacterial. Thought to increase longevity in elders. Can be used on bruises, swollen tissues and stings when the leaves are cooked with vinegar.

Preparation: Medicinal Parts- aerial sections above the ground. Leaves can be cooked with vinegar and applied topically on wounds. Tea or mouthwash can be made from boiling the leaves or soaking them. Essential oils are made. Dried Sage leaves are burnt and the smoke inhaled or left in a room to induce antibacterial properties.

Scotch Broom

Cytisus Scoparius69

Target system: Nervous System

Use: The flowering tops known to stimulate the body with a quick depression to follow. The entire plant was historically used to treat muscle spasms, tremors and shakes.

Preparation: Medicinal Parts- flowers. The flowering tops mainly used for dyes. The herb can be made into tinctures.

Serviceberry

Amelanchier Canadensis70

Target system: Digestive System

Use: The fruits used to treat stomach aches and liver problems Used to treat sore eyes and fatigue.

Preparation: Medicinal Parts- fruit/leaves/stems. Berries are edible, raw or cooked. The whole plant can be dried and made into tea.

Skullcap

Scutellaria Lateriflora71

Target system: Nervous System, Muscular System

Use: Used to reduce nerves from anxiety, depression, exhaustion and stress, headaches and migraines. Reduces nerve swellings and helps with premenstrual symptoms. Used as a sedative to reduce muscle spasms, tremors, and cramps. Helps with insomnia and many neurological disorders. Historically used to help with epilepsy, treat rabies and withdrawal from barbiturates. Treats inflammation of joints and pain from scoliosis.

Preparation: Medicinal Parts- aerial parts.

St John’s Wort*

Hypericum Perforatum43

Target system: Nervous System, Digestive System, Immune System, Integumentary System, Reproductive System, Circulatory System

Use: Strengthens the nervous system by healing nerve damage and treating pains associated with inflammation, sciatica, back pain and other spinal issues. Helps reduce insomnia, mild depression and headaches. Works as an analgesic to reduce pain of deep wounds, arthritis, and severe joint pain. Has antiviral properties to treat cold sores, viral infections, and shingles. As an anti inflammatory it is used topically to treat skin problems like rashes, eczema, burns, wounds, cuts, scrapes, and sores. Will increase mucous secretions to cleanse the nasal and respiratory canals. Treats colic, stomach ache, anemia, and jaundice. Treats uterine cramping and menstrual problems. Aides with carcinoma.

Preparation: Medicinal Parts- flowers/leaves. Made into essential oils, salves, and ointments.

Sweet Cicely*

Myrrhis Odorata44

Target system: Digestive System, Immune System

Use: Antifungal property and antioxidative. The roots have been used to increase digestion and to detox the body. The leaves are eaten for those with anemia.

Preparation: Medicinal Parts- fruits/seeds. green seeds can be eaten raw, used in liqueur flavoring. The root and the leaves are eaten or made into fusions. The fruit is not eaten.

Sweet Pepper Bush

Clethra Alnifolia

Use: No Found Medicinal Uses

Sweet Woodruff*

Galium Odorata45

Target system: Immune System, Digestive System, Circulatory System

Use: Helps with burns and healing wounds. Has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. The leaves are made into a tea and used to treat digestive disorders. Used to increase urination and detoxify the liver. Reduces stomach spasms and used as a light sedative. The leaves are crushed and placed on wounds to induce clotting. When the leaves are dried, they repel insects.

Preparation: Medicinal Parts- leaves. The leaves develop a "new-mown-hay" scent right before drying out and therefore should be picked a few hours before usage. The leaves are dried and made into tea.

Tansy*

Tanacetum Vulgare46

Target system: Immune System, Reproductive System, Digestive System

Use: Known to have potent antioxidant effects which help heal wounds, cuts, scrapes, sores, and skin damage. Used to lighten skin as a toner. Helps with inflammation, rheumatism. Studied for its effects in repelling ticks, mites, and other insects. Strengthens the immune system by increasing the proliferation of white blood cells, reduces risks of tumors. Reduces fevers. In the digestive system, it has been used to cure intestinal worms and treat jaundice. For the reproductive system, women have historically used it to increase fertility, help with conception, and reduce chances of miscarriages. Adversely, it has also been used to induce abortion.

Preparation: Medicinal Parts- flowers/leaves.

Valerian

Valeriana Officinalis47

Target system: Nervous System

Use: With long term usage, helps with treating sleeping disorders, insomnia, anxiety, stress, migraines, hysteria. Used as a sedative. Studied for its effects in enhancing neurological functions, improving cognitive memory, promoting cell development and reducing stress factors in growth.

Preparation: Medicinal parts- rootstalk.

Veronica*

Veronica officinalis72

Target system: Integumentary System

Use: Used for pectoral and nephritic complaints, hemorrhages, diseases of the skin and in the treatment of wounds. Modern herbalists still consider an infusion of the dried plant to be useful in coughs, catarrh, etc., and is a simple and effective remedy in skin diseases.

Preparation:

Wild Ginger

Asarum Europaeum53

Target system: Reproductive System, Digestive System, Muscular System, Nervous system

Use: Helps in the reproductive system to regulate menstruation. Used to flush toxins from the body and induce vomiting. Used in cases of alcoholism and diarrhea. Used as a pain reliever. Used to decrease convulsions, sciatica, neural hearing loss and gastrointestinal diseases.

Preparation: Medicinal Parts- rhizomes of the roots

Willow (black)*

Salix nigra61

Target system: Circulatory System, Immune System

Use: Most commonly known for the discovery of aspirin. Has potent anti inflammatory and antioxidative properties. Used to treat common fever, pain and inflammation. Used to treat arthritis, swollen endocrine glands and inflammation in organs and inflammation of nerves. Alleviates blood clotting to treat hemorrhages and heart arrhythmias. Cleanses and disinfects wounds, cuts, abscesses, ulcers and skin damage. Historically used to ease childbirth pains and a prolapsed uterus. Anti Cancerous, protecting against colorectal cancer and a variety of cancerous cells.

Preparation: Medicinal Parts- bark. The bark of willow is made into aspirin, can be chewed on, boiled or made into tinctures. Can be powdered down and made into supplements.

Witch Hazel*

Hamamelis Virginiana73

Target system: Immune System, Circulatory System, Muscular System, Integumentary System

Use: Has potent antiseptic properties. Used to disinfect cuts, scrapes, and wounds. Used as a facial cleanser to improve skin complexion, sunburns, dryness, bruises, and rashes. Useful in aiding infection, soreness or inflamed eyes. Reduces inflammation. Helps clot excessive bleeding, while also reducing hemorrhoids. Used on varicose veins as it helps tone and tighten loose tissue. Witch Hazel water has minor antiviral properties and can be used on sores caused by herpes.

Preparation: Medicinal Parts- bark/leaf. The seeds are edible but the twigs of the flowering stems are the main medicinal component. Distillation of these twigs are first diluted before exposure to skin.

Yarrow*

Achillea Millefolium48

Target system: Circulatory System, Immune System, Integumentary System

Use: Works as diaphoretic, antispasmodic, anti inflammatory, antiphlogistic, antiseptic, tonic. Balances emotional upsets, treats symptoms of menopause, menstrual cramping and vaginitis. As an astringent, helps with acne, cellulite, and sunburn. Also works to treat excessive bleeding, hemorrhoids, hemorrhaging, nose bleeds, preventing internal blood clots but also improving external clotting. Treats varicose veins and bruises. Treats ulcers, measles, colds, fevers, abscesses, headaches, and gout. Treats smallpox and chickenpox. Heals mucous membranes and eases diarrhea. Helps reduce hypertension.

Preparation: Medicinal Parts- flowers/fruits/leaves/stalk/roots. Chewing the root can help with toothaches and grinding the leaves on cuts and wounds can help stop bleeding.